Tutoring Reading Comprehension

Five Components of Reading Instruction

Phonemic Awareness

Manipulating speech sounds Phonemic awareness instruction teaches students to distinguish and manipulate the sounds in words.


Mapping sounds and printed words. Phonics instruction helps children learn and understand the relationships between the letters of written language and the sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. Instruction in phonics helps children understand that there are predictable relationships between letters and sounds, helps them recognize familiar words, and allows them to “decode” unfamiliar printed words.


Speed and accuracy in reading aloud Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and smoothly. The more automatically students can read individual words, the more they can focus on understanding the meaning of whole sentences and passages.


Learning new words Oral vocabulary refers to words used in speaking or recognized in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words that are recognized or used in print.


Deriving meaning from different types of text. Comprehension refers to understanding what is being read. Students will not understand text if they can read individual words but do not understand what sentences, paragraphs, and longer passages mean.